****ANSWER POST 250 WORDS MON EACH****
Discussion Questions: 1) Explain at least one key federal plan, strategy, or guidance released to date and how they have contributed to the current structure of critical infrastructure security and resilience.
2) Define risk and explain the value of risk management to the homeland security enterprise.
3) Summarize at least one natural hazard, technological/accidental hazard, or adversarial/human-caused threat and provide a recent example.
4) Discuss at least one of the twelve technological/accidental hazards and provide a recent example.
5) Elaborate on at least one of the adversarial/human-caused threat examples and provide a recent example.
****REPLY TO EACH POST 100 WORDS MIN***
2. The current state of critical infrastructure security and resilience owes much to the federal government's National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP). It is an all-encompassing strategy introduced in 2006 and revised in 2009 and 2013. The National Assets Protection Plan (NIPP) is a coordination and risk reduction strategy throughout the nation's critical assets. It provides principles for collaboration between federal, state, local, and private sector institutions and assists in identifying and prioritizing essential infrastructure (Baggett & Simpkins, 2018). The plan contains risk management, information sharing, and incident management processes to protect vital infrastructure from cyber and physical attacks. The NIPP has been crucial in making the United States' critical infrastructure solid and secure, and it is regularly updated to account for new risks.
In homeland security, protecting civilians and vital infrastructure is of utmost importance. Natural disasters, acts of terrorism, cyberattacks, and other dangers to national security are examples of events and actions that pose risks. Effective risk management solutions are essential if we are to accomplish this mission. Identifying and mitigating risks can reduce the likelihood of suffering an adverse outcome. In this way, we can keep the people safe and keep their faith in our government and institutions strong. Comprehensive risk management requires cooperation between public and commercial organizations and the general population (Sadiq et al., 2019). Furthermore, the risk mitigation techniques' effectiveness must be continuously monitored and evaluated. In conclusion, the safety and assurance of our nation depend on our proactive approach to detecting and managing threats. Doing so will help avert catastrophes and keep people safe.
Radiation is a significant technological risk that harms people and the environment. It is produced naturally and artificially in nuclear power plants and medical devices. The Fukushima accident vividly illustrates the terrible results of being exposed to radiation. The 2011 earthquake and tsunami damaged the nuclear power facility, which allowed radioactive materials to escape into the environment (Kamae, 2016). Long-term effects on public health and the environment necessitated the relocation of many individuals in the aftermath. The detrimental consequences of radiation exposure can be prevented or reduced using proper safeguards. Radiation-emitting medical equipment must be used correctly, and radioactive waste must be disposed of correctly. Nuclear power plants must undergo routine safety assessments. Taking these precautions will make the environment safer for everyone.
It is crucial to keep in mind potential risks as we continue to navigate the ever-changing landscape of technology. Cyber attacks, which can involve everything from the theft of sensitive information to the entire takeover of computer systems, are among today's greatest threats. The latest SolarWinds attack is a sobering reminder that no network is impenetrable (Leithauser, 2020). This attack affected a wide range of government organizations and significant corporations, highlighting the need for preventative measures against cyber attacks. Strong passwords and regular software updates are two of the best ways for individuals and businesses to protect themselves from cybercriminals. Keeping an eye out for potential cyber assaults and adopting precautions will help us avoid being caught off guard.
The proliferation of cybercrime is highly worrying and dangerous for our culture. As more and more of our daily activities become reliant on digital tools, so do the opportunities for cybercriminals to steal our data. There are many examples of this danger in the actual world, sadly. The Colonial Pipeline was shut down in May 2021 after a ransomware assault caused gas shortages and price increases along the East Coast (Hansbrough & Stephenson, 2021). Cybercrime can have severe consequences for our daily lives and essential infrastructure, as seen in this instance.
Baggett, R. K., & Simpkins, B. K. (2018). Homeland Security and Critical Infrastructure Protection. Bloomsbury Publishing USA.
Hansbrough, B., & Stephenson, E. F. (2021). Did Georgia’s Post-Pipeline-Hack Gasoline-Tax Suspension Lower Prices? Atlantic Economic Journal, 49(3), 321–323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11293-021-09724-3
Kamae, K. (2016). Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Nuclear Risks Prediction and Assessment Beyond the Fukushima Accident (K. Kamae, Ed.; 1st ed. 2016.). Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-55822-4
Leithauser, T. (2020). CISA Issues New Warning About SolarWinds Breach. Cybersecurity Policy Report, 1–1.
Sadiq, A.-A., Tyler, J., & Noonan, D. S. (2019). A review of community flood risk management studies in the United States. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 41, 101327–. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101327
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