The homework assignment is attached below under 'What to do'. The reading is also down below under 'chapter 2'. Explain the concept rather than reading the same explanation in the book.
You will create 5 journal entries regarding the interpersonal and intra-personal concepts covered over the semester. The journal responses are designed for you to explore your own experiences regarding course concepts.
• Department Goal: Analysis of Communication • Learning Outcome: Critical Thinking (AACU) and Critically Analyzing
Messages (NCA LOC5) Your journal response is going to have three parts.
In the first part of your assignment, you are going to identify(select) AND define (in your own words) a minimum of 3 and no more than 5 concepts/aspects/perspectives/theories that you have learned from chapter 2 (Communicating Identities) of our book, and you deem these newly learned concepts/theories to be intriguing and/or useful in your future professional and personal lives.
In the second part of your homework assignment, you`re going to explain why you believe these newly learned concepts are useful in your personal and professional lives. In other words, what makes these concepts/theories important in your life?
In the third part of your assignment, you are going to explain how learning these concepts will impact your personal and professional lives from this point onward. In other words, what aspects of your interpersonal and intrapersonal communication do you think (and want to) improve based on the newly learned concepts that you discussed in the first part of the assignment.
The criteria are as follows:
– At least three and no more than five concepts/theories are selected, defined, explained, and used in the paper
– 600 words
– It does not have grave grammatical errors and is free of typos
– CLEARLY AND CONCISELY explains why you believe these newly learned concepts are useful in your personal and professional lives. In other words, what makes these concepts/theories important in your life.
– CLEARLY AND CONCISELY explains how learning these concepts will impact your personal and professional lives from this point onward. In other words, what aspects of your interpersonal and intrapersonal communication do you think (and want to) improve based on the newly learned concepts that you discussed in the first part of the question?
Please use your own words to explain/define concepts. I will be much more impressed by your ability to explain a concept in your own words rather than reading the same explanation in the book.
The Importance of Identity 2.1 Identify six reasons identity is important to communication.
Identity has a tremendous impact on the communication process in a number of ways. How we
communicate, as well as how our communication is received by others, can be shaped by our identities
and the identities of others. Let's look at some of the ways that identity influences communication. First,
because individuals bring their self-images or identities to each communicative encounter, every
communication interaction is affected by their identities. For example, when elderly people converse
with teenagers, both groups may have to accommodate for differences in their experiences and
language use. Second, communication interactions create and shape identities (Carbaugh, 2007). If older
adults treat teenagers with respect and admiration during their conversations, these young people may
view themselves as more mature and more valuable than they did previously. Conversely,
communication can also be used to denigrate other identities and create tension between groups. It is
always important to think about the impact of communication on various identity groups.
Third, identity plays an important role in intercultural communication, which is something that has
become increasingly common in our global, technology-based world. As more and more businesses have
international branches and subsidiaries, workers are increasingly likely to have contact with people from
other cultures. The more familiar they are with the values related to identity in these cultures, the better
prepared they will be to succeed in today's society. Fourth, understanding identity is useful because so
much of U.S. life is organized around and geared toward specific identities (Allen, 2004). In the United
States, we have television stations such as Black Entertainment Television and Telemundo and, as more
people get rid of cable subscriptions, Black Stories on Hulu, for example, that offer programming for
primarily African American audiences. Magazines like Ebony and Out, among many, are targeted to
groups based on their race, age, gender, or sexuality. We also have entertainment venues such as
Disneyland and Club Med that are developed specifically for families, romantic couples, and singles. In
this identity-based climate, individuals often communicate primarily with others who share their
identities. Consequently, learning how to communicate effectively with individuals whose identities vary
from yours may require considerable thought and effort.
Fifth, identity is a key site in which individual and societal forces come together to shape communication
experiences. Although we each possess identity characteristics such as social class or nationality, the
society where our communication takes place defines the meanings of those characteristics. For
example, depending on whether you are in the United States or visiting a country where anti-American
sentiment is common, what it means to be an "American" can have different nuances. Moreover, we
cannot separate our identities -as individuals or as members of society -from our communication
experiences. Finally, identity is an important part of how we send and receive messages. When someone
wants to speak for or against a proposed change in restaurant regulations at a city council meeting, they
may preface the remarks by noting that they are an owner of a restaurant in the city and then make their
arguments. In other situations, people may identify themselves as parents, consumers, fans, and other
identities. Sometimes identities are used to mobilize people to act, such as the Black Lives Matter
protests held in the wake of the killing of George Floyd in Minneapolis. Not all protestors were African
Americans and all African Americans did not participate, but we are a complex set of interconnected
identities. We explain this interaction more fully throughout this chapter.
What Is Identity? 2.2 Define identity.
When you enrolled in college, you were most likely required to provide a piece of identification, such as
a birth certificate, passport, or driver's license. Identity is tied closely to identification; it refers to who
you are and the specific characteristics that make you different from other individuals. In communication
studies, identity includes not only who you are but also the social categories you identify yourself with
and the categories that others identify with you. Society creates social categories such as middle aged or
college student, but they only become part of one's identity when one identifies with them or others
identify you in these categories. For example, you may think of yourself as short, but others may classify
you as being of average height. Many young people in their late teens and early twenties identify with
the category college student, but a growing number of people in their thirties, forties, and even older are
also returning to school and identifying with this category. The many social categories that exist can be
divided into two types: primary and secondary identities (Loden & Rosener, 1991; Ting Toomey, 1999).
Primary identities are those that have the most consistent and enduring impact on our lives, such as
race, gender, and nationality. Secondary identities, such as college major, occupation, and marital status,
are more fluid and more dependent on situation.
To help define the term identity, let's examine its essential characteristics. The first characteristic is that
identities exist at the individual and the societal levels. Jake Harwood (2006) explains this concept: "At
the individual (personal identity) level, we are concerned with our difference from other individuals, and
the things that make us unique as people. At the collective (social identity) level, we are concerned with
our group's differences from other groups, and the things that make our group unique" (pp. 81-85). For
example, if you are athletic and you are thinking about your athleticism in relation to others who are
more or less athletic than you are, you are focusing on one aspect of your individual identity. If you are
thinking about the social role of "athletes" in society, then you are focusing on a different aspect of your
We should note that identities are not necessarily only individual or social; they can be both, depending
on the situation. How is this contradiction possible? Let's look at an example. Many of you are U.S.
Americans, and your national identity is part of your social identity. Because you are surrounded by
others from the United States, you may not be conscious of this as being part of your individual identity.
But if you travel abroad, your national identity becomes part of your individual identity because this
significant characteristic differentiates you from others. A second important aspect of identity is that it is
both fixed and dynamic. Again, this seems like a contradiction. If you think about it, however, you will
realize that certain aspects of our identities, although stable to some extent, actually do change over
time. For instance, a person may be born male, but as he grows from an infant to a boy to a teenager to
a young man to a middle-aged man and then to an old man, the meanings of his male identity change.
He is still a male and still identifies as a male, but what it means to be male alters as he ages, and social
expectations change regarding what a boy or a man should be (Kimmel, 2005). A third characteristic of
identity is that individual and social identities are created through interaction with others. The
relationships, experiences, and communication interactions we share with others shape how we see
ourselves. For example, people who travel abroad and then return home may experience stress, but they
also experience growth and change – and communication with those they meet as they travel plays a key
role in both (Martin & Harrell, 1996).
A fourth consideration is that identities need to be understood in relation to historical, social, and
cultural environments. The meaning of any identity is tied to how it has been viewed historically and
how people with that identity are situated in a given culture and society (Hecht et al., 2003; Johnson,
2001). For instance, throughout history, we have had varied notions of what it means to be female (Bock,
1989). For example, Harriet Tubman, who led many slaves to freedom, and Susan B. Anthony, who
fought for women's right to vote in the nineteenth century, were significant exceptions to their racial and
gender identities. In their times and for much of history, women have been perceived as intellectually
inferior, physically delicate, or morally weak when compared to men. African Americans were also seen
as unable to be leaders. Because of these beliefs, in many cultures women and African Americans were
denied voting and property rights. Thus, a hierarchy exists across cultures in which some identities are
preferentially treated over other identities. You can probably think of other examples in which
preferential treatment was given or denied based on race, sexuality, religion, social class, or age (Allen,
2004). In sum, identity is key to understanding communication, and communication is key to
understanding identity. As Abrams et al. (2002, p. 237) have stated, "identity and communication are
The Individual and Identity 2.3 Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling
prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.
Although it can be tempting to boil a person's identity down to one word -say, nerd, jock, or sorority girl –
in reality, everyone is more complex than that. If you had to pick only one word to describe yourself and
you had to use it in every situation -personal and professional -what word would you choose? For most
people this task is impossible, for we all see ourselves as multidimensional, complex, and unique. People
in the United States, especially, are invested in the notion that they are unique. Iwins often go to great
lengths to assure people that they are not the same. Perhaps the most famous example of this is the
Olsen twins, Mary-Kate and Ashley. Mary-Kate dyed her hair dark so she would look less like her sister,
and when the sisters received a star on Hollywood's Walk of Fame, they requested that they be given
separate stars (a request that was denied). Like almost everyone, they recognize and value their
uniqueness – and they would like others to do so as well. How is it possible that people who are as much
alike as twins can still have distinct identities? It is possible because of the ways in which identities are
created and how these identities are "performed" in daily life.
The Individual, Identity, and Society 2.4 Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age,
social class, disability, and religious identities.
Library The development of individual identities is influenced by societal forces. Therefore, you cannot
understand yourself or others without understanding how society constructs or defines characteristics
such as gender, sexuality, race, religion, social class, and nationality. For example, as a child, you were
probably told (some of) the differences between boys and girls. Some messages came from your
parents, such as how boys' and girls' clothing differs or how girls should behave as compared with boys.
Other messages came from your schoolmates, who may have told you that "they" (either boys or girls)
had "cooties." You may also have picked up messages about gender differences, or about any of the
identity categories mentioned, from television or other media. By combining messages from these
various sources, you began to construct images of what is considered normal for each identity category.
Communication scholars are particularly interested in how identities are communicated, and created,
through communication. For example, in his work focusing on communication interactions, Donal
Carbaugh (2007) is particularly interested in studying intercultural encounters, and he focuses on how
communication interaction reveals insights into cultural identities.
When people enact identities that are contrary to social expectations, they may be pressured to change
their performance. Thus, boys and girls who do not perform their gender identities in ways prescribed by
society might be called "sissies" or "tomboys." There are some Jewish people who eat shrimp and some
Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) who drink coffee, but they may not do so when around other people.
Those who do not conform to expected social communication or performance patterns may become
victims of threats, name calling, violence, and even murder (Sloop, 2004). These aggressive responses
are meant to ensure that everyone behaves in ways that clearly communicate appropriate identity
categories. For example, after a lengthy lawsuit, Shannon Faulkner became the first woman to enroll at
the Citadel, South Carolina's formerly all-male military college. During the time that she attended the
school, she received death threats and had to be accompanied by federal marshals (Bennett-Haigney,
1995). Thus, some groups in society have strong feelings regarding how identities should be performed,
and they may act to ensure that identities are performed according to societal expectations. In this
section of the chapter, we will look at a range of primary identity categories. Note that each is a product
of both individual and societal forces. Thus, whatever you think your individual identity might be, you
have to negotiate that identity within the larger society and the meanings society ascribes to it.
Ethics and Identity 2.5 Discuss three ethical considerations for communicating in a sensitive manner to
and about others' identities.
As you are probably aware, a person's sense of identity is central to how they function in the world.
Moreover, because identities derive their meanings from society, every identity comes with values
attached to it. The ways we communicate may reflect these values. If you wish to be sensitive to other
people's identities, you should be aware of at least three key ethical issues that can impact your
communication with others. One issue you might consider is how you communicate with people whose
identities are more, or less, valued. What do we mean by more or less valued? You probably already
know. In the United States, for example, which of the following identities is more highly valued: White or
multiracial? Male or female? Lawyer or school bus driver? Still, these rankings are not necessarily
consistent across cultures. In Denmark, for example, work identities do not follow the same hierarchical
pattern as those in the United States (Mikkelsen & Einarsen, 2001). Thus, Danes are more likely to view
street sweepers and doctors as social equals because they don't place as high a value on the medical
profession nor as low a value on service jobs as many U.S. Americans do. In the United States, in
contrast, many service workers complain that most of the people they serve either ignore them or treat
them rudely even with contempt. Consequently, you might ask yourself, "Do I communicate more
politely and respectfully with high-versus low-status people?" If you find yourself exhibiting more respect
when you communicate with your boss than you do with the employees you manage, then you might
want to consider the impact of your communication on your subordinates' identities.
The second ethical point to reflect on involves language that denigrates or puts down others based on
their identities. Such language debases their humanity and shuts down open communication. Examples
of unethical communication and behavior related to identity occur if men yell sexual slurs at women on
the street, or straight people harass individuals they believe are gay, or when White people are
disrespectful to people of color. Although you probably don't engage in such obvious insults to people's
identities, do you denigrate them in other, more subtle ways? For example, have you ever referred to
someone as "just a homemaker" or "only a dental assistant"?
Skills for Communicating about Identities 2.6 Explain three ways to communicate more effectively about
Related to our discussion about ethical issues, we offer three guidelines for communicating more
effectively about identities. The first guideline concerns the self-fulfilling prophecy we discussed
previously: How you communicate to someone and about someone can influence how they perform
their identity or how it develops. If a parent continually communicates with the child as if she were
irresponsible, then the child is likely to act irresponsibly. To communicate effectively, be aware of the
ways you create self-fulfilling prophecies through your own communication. Second, there are many
ways to perform a particular identity. You can improve your ability to communicate if you are tolerant of
the many variations. For example, even if you believe that "real men" should act in certain ways, you are
likely to communicate more effectively if you do not impose your beliefs on others. For example, you
should not assume that because someone is male, he enjoys watching football, baseball, and other
sports; wants to get married and have children; or eats only meat and potatoes. If you do, you are likely
to communicate with some men in ways they will find less interesting than you intend. Third, remember
that people change over time. If you have been out of touch with friends for a period of time, when you
encounter them again you may find that they have embraced new identities. Sometimes people change
religious identities, or sometimes they change occupations. You can increase your communication
effectiveness if you recognize that people change and that their new identities may be unfamiliar to you.
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