Please help with this Linguistics test. Make the corrections for the sentences using style editing.
Style Editing Test (41 points total)
Part I. Focused Style Edits (14 points, 2 points per question)
Edit the seven sentences below as specified by the directions in italics. You may find it helpful to consult the Hacker, Zinsser, and Style books.
Sentences 1-3 come from item 9 on this webpage: https://lafavephilosophy.x10host.com/writsamp0.htm
Immanuel Kant was a great philosopher that came up with many philosophical thoughts. He represents philosophy at its best. (Put brackets around any clutter and tighten or combine the two sentences into one.).
One issue that went against his moral laws was that of people having a lack of honesty or lying. (Change the subject to a character and the main verb to an action verb).
I disagree with Kant, my view is that sometimes all lying is not wrong. (Remove wordiness & revise to clarify the negative)
While driving to school in the morning, deer often jump into East St. (Repair the dangling modifier)
Every morning I pack my bag, the guinea pig is fed, and my lunch. (Fix the parallelism)
The guinea pig is eating a carrot. (Make the sentence passive)
The plants haven’t been watered in a month. (Make the sentence active; you’ll need to invent a subject for the revised version)
Part II. Short Answer (12 points, 3 per question; 4 questions total)
Answer any four of the following questions. Answers may be in the form of lists and do not need to be in complete sentences.
Locate a couple of your own sentences and revise them using the advice from the Style book. Then briefly explain which of their principles you used and whether you prefer the revised versions.
List a principle from the inside cover of the Style book you think is useful and explain why. Then list one of Orwell’s six rules that you think is useful and explain why. Finally, list a rule (from Orwell or the Style book) that you don’t agree with and explain why.
Briefly discuss three features of your own style (or voice). For example, how do you feel about humor, figures of speech, cliches, word choice, sentence length, etc.?
Identify the figure of speech used in the following examples.
“I’m not going to call him a lightweight, because I think that’s a derogatory term” (Trump on Rubio, via Slate)
We need to “right-size our organization to achieve future growth targets” (see Emma’s discussion board post)
“True fact” or “free gift”
Each of these sentences has a modifying phrase at the end. Match the sentence to the type of modifier used (resumptive, summative, or free). You will probably find it helpful to look at pp. 146-148 of the Style book (chapter 10).
She was tired of studying, a chore that didn’t seem to be helping her grades.
She was tired of studying, dreaming instead of reading a silly book or traveling to a distant land.
She was tired of studying, tired down to her bones.
Give an example of metadiscourse. How does it relate to clarity and to concision?
In at least two sentences, summarize Zinsser’s advice about writing in the first person (pp. 20-21). Do you tend to agree with his advice or disagree, and why?
Part III: Global Style Edits (15 points, 3 per edit: 1 for the edit itself and 2 for the explanation
Read over the following student essay taken from Gradesfixer.com and look for stylistic problems. I have corrected some typos and grammar errors, so most of the remaining issues should be stylistic.
Then make 5 stylistic editing suggestions. You may bracket off passages that you think need reworking and insert a suggestion for editing, or you may make the change yourself. Number each of your suggestions. Then, either in a comment or a numbered list after the essay, explain why you are suggesting the changes to each numbered passage. What was the problem with that section as written and what does your suggestion do to improve it?
Is College Worth the Cost It’s Experience
Is College valuable? Is college worth the cost? This essay will give answers to this the most frequently asked question both for future college students and their parents. There will be an attempt to give answer based on argumentative statements.
College is what many of us are told to go to for our futures. It creates more open choices for being employed as college basically trains you to be satisfactory at that specific career. The rate of pay would be significantly higher than working a minimum wage job. A very important thing that is hardly mentioned is getting the social aspect of interacting while in college. Prerequisites in school let students take courses that are requirements to further advance to the next one. Going to college is valuable because after graduating, an individual can get more options to become employed, have a decent living income, lets students learn about different courses by taking prerequisites and the exposure to society.
Going to college will increase individuals’ opportunities to become employed in something they like to do. Working for somewhere that you have no interest in, except to be paid, does not make a good environment for the employee and the employer. It can cause the work being done to be poor and having no motivation to keep doing it. Suzzane Fields in the article “There’s More To Learning Than A Job Search” says “Employers would be assured that the prospective employee had achieved a certain level of “cognitive competence.” Fields is basically saying college is a certification telling employers that a person is trained, qualified, and understands how to do things in that specific career. It will have great impacts on the basis of being hired in the job that one is applying for. An employer will look for people with experience or is qualified in that field, and not hire someone they will take a lot of time to train also having no understanding how things work. Study has shown attending schooling for the future of one teaches them crucial skills that can be used to get a superior job.
After graduating high school people that do not go to college have lots of important things they miss out on. Of the many things one key component is socializing. Piyush Manguskiya in the article “Is College Worth the Cost? Absolutely” says “It is also a meaningful social experience, where people develop friendships and long-term relationships.” Manguskiya lets us know being social in college can also have long term outcomes. Not only having a good time by hanging out with friends and taking part in class activities, such as discussions, but it may lead to students finding a spouse that has the same interests in themselves. Talking and interacting physically helps us learn to socialize, instead of texting behind a phone or screen which is much simpler to do. There are many perks of being socially active while attending college. One of the many advantages it provides is that it allows one to be much more self-confident when faced with social situations. Doing presentations in front of a huge crowd of people, or even just a small room of students would be much easier to do. Another would be having more friends. They are a huge part of being socially inclined allowing one to express how they feel or just talk to each other. Interacting with others is also good for one’s health as it provides a better feeling of well-being and lessens the chance of depression.
Attending school itself is a must if wanting to get an income that is much higher than the minimum wage is what is needed. General high school graduates are paid at a minimum even though they can be paid much higher. A high school diploma lets people know you have the basic general education, but with a college degree it shows you have been taught about a career. Eventually if one works adequately in their position they are able to get a better pay, but it takes them a much longer time. Having a college degree lets them start at a way higher hourly or salary pay. According to Trade Economics, the average pay in 2019 is $22.73, and the minimum wage is $12.00. Those who attended and graduated college are being paid at that average or higher, there is no reason to pay an employee less than what they are qualified to do. Thus making it less stressful to employers who do not need to spend too much time on training or teaching basic ideas of how items work in that field. Getting an education and obtaining a degree really does pay off.
Prerequisites are also a very valuable thing in college. Picking a major and going to only those classes will not get a student a degree. These classes are what a student must take and pass with a valid grade before they are able to get into a course that is needed in their major. The result of that allows all college students to have an understanding of english, and math. It may also be used if another course requires a different one to be competed first. For example, an automotive safety course must be taken before one is allowed to continue to the next course of intro to automotive. It teaches college level programs, instead of high school general education level. High schools do have requirements such as having four years of english or math to get into classes in college, but if an individual has not passed than they must take those courses in college.
Going to college and paying for college is much less harder on the student now than before. In the article “83 Seconds: How Fast-Paced Standardized Testing Has Created a New Glass Ceiling” by Andrew Hacker states “Debt concerns are affecting more than alumni’s attitudes about their undergraduate experience.” Hacker says college students are in debt and do not think it is worth the cost to go to college. Students have several different options to pay for their classes. There is the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FASFA), which grants them money to pay for classes and their wellbeing. That money does not need to be paid back to the state, because grants are not loans. An option that colleges provide is on campus jobs that allow students to work in several different departments and get paid hourly. These jobs would be based on the major or occupation that is being taken to further prepare the student. With the option of taking online classes it gives time to get a part time job that will also allow them to get income.
In conclusion, college is what provides the means of having a good living. Doing something you love to do in a career is very important, as It creates motivation to keep doing that work. College qualifies you, which in turn allows a much more stable income than a minimum wage job that will pay only if you had a high school diploma. Being able to apply and have the option for employers to give you a chance to work in a career you want is greatly increased. The time you spend to socialize has its own positive outcomes, which create less anxiety, more self-esteem and control over your life. College is valuable as it provides more employment opportunities, much higher wages and allows students to be successful in their futures.
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